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  • Civilization 1: THE PLAYER'S CIVILOPEDIA

         This file provides an alphabetical reference to the
      technological advancements in Sid Meier's Civilization. It
      allows one to check the blueprints (prerequisites, future
      advancements, and residual benefits) for each advance
      against the needs of the players specific situation. THIS
      recommend readers print this file out for "monitor-side"
         These chunks of wisdom were excerpted from Alan Emrich
      and Johnny Wilson's Sid Meier's Civilization, Or Rome On
      640K A Day, an excellent supplement and strategy guide done
      in close collaboration with Sid Meier.
      Advanced Flight
         Requires: Flight, Electricity
         Leads to: Rocketry.
         Makes available: Bomber and Aircraft Carrier Units.
         Advanced Flight is an important milestone on the road to
      Space Flight and the colonization of Alpha Centauri, and the
      immediate military advantages are impressive. Aircraft
      Carrier units possess the best defense in the game and, when
      parked in a coastal city with City Walls, can be nearly
      impossible to destroy. Bomber units, on the other hand, are
      a fine offensive tool. They can block enemy units, pillage
      enemy resources, attack cities while negating the effects of
      City Walls, and can be based on Carriers for an extra
      extension to their range. While not an urgent discovery,
      Advanced Flight is certainly an important and highly useful
      advance for both war mongers and space colonizers.
         Requires: None.
         Leads to: Code of Laws, Map Making, Math, Writing
         All good things spring forth from the Alphabet. With the
      possible exception of Pottery, it should be the first thing
      a player discovers. Short of an urgent military necessity
      requiring Bronze Working, don't waste a moment.
         Requires: Mysticism, Mathematics
         Leads to: Navigation, Theory of Gravity
         Makes available: Copernicus' Observatory
         Astronomy is primarily a stepping stone on the way to
      Navigation, which leads to the crucial, world-exploring Sail
      units and the never-expiring Magellan's Expedition wonder.
      It is THE door to modern science.
      Atomic Theory
         Requires: Theory of Gravity, Physics
         Leads to: Nuclear Fission
         As far as advances go, Atomic Theory does not offer much.
      It leads toward the Manhattan Project wonder and Nuclear
      Power, and thus can be put off until one has a pressing need
      for a cleaner fuel supply or nuclear superiority.
         Requires: Combustion, Steel
         Leads to: Mass Production
         Makes available: Armor Units
         Makes Obsolete: Copernicus' Observatory and Knight Units.
         The Automobile advance is a can of worms. While allowing
      players to build the best overall military unit in the game,
      it also makes Knights obsolete and increases your pollution
      problems considerably. Fortunately, it brings the player 1
      step from the Mass Production advance which negates the
      population pollution effect, and 2 steps from the Recycling
      advance which reduces industrial pollution to its lowest
      possible level.
         Requires: Trade, The Republic
         Leads to: Industrialization, Corporation
         Makes available: Banks
         Banks become available with the advent of banking, which
      increase luxury item and coin production by 50%. It also
      comprises half of the ingredients necessary for the
      Industrialization advance.
      Bridge Building
         Requires: Iron Working, Construction
         Leads to: Railroad
         Makes available: Roads on river squares.
         In itself, Bridge Building is not an important advance
      (unless your empire is divided by numerous rivers), but its
      necessity in acquiring the essential Railroad advance make
      it a priority.
      Bronze Working
         Leads to: Currency, Iron Working
         Makes available: Phalanx Units, Colossus wonder
         The closer you discover a neighboring civilization, the
      more important this advance becomes. The Phalanx units it
      provides will be your primary defensive unit until the
      invention of Gunpowder. The Colossus wonder is also very
      useful, being the cheapest to construct and adding to your
      trade production during the crucial early years when they
      are needed the most.
      Ceremonial Burial
         Requires: None
         Leads to: Monarchy, Mysticism
         Makes available: Temples
         This advance does not sound as important as it really is.
      The immediate affect is the ability to construct temples
      (absolutely necessary early on at higher difficulty levels)
      which in turn prevent volcano disasters. It is also the
      building block to Monarchy and Mysticism, two other crucial
      advances. Ceremonial Burial -- dig it!
         Requires: University, Medicine
         Leads to: Refining, Nuclear Power
         Chemistry has no immediate benefits, though it is a major
      gateway to many modern era advances.
         Requires: Feudalism, Horseback Riding
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Knight Units
         Makes obsolete: Chariots
         If you are a warring type of leader, Chivalry is
      certainly not the dead end that it seems. The Knight Units
      it makes available are the best all around units on the
      board until Gunpowder and Metallurgy bring in heavier fire
      power. Peacefully situated civilizations may opt to leave
      Feudalism and Chivalry alone.
      Code of Laws
         Requires: Alphabet
         Leads to: Monarchy, Trade, Literacy, The Republic
         Makes available: Courthouses
         Code of Laws is a major gateway in the early portion of
      the game. Unless in a war situation requiring the urgent
      research of Bronze or Iron working, one should get their
      Code of Laws established as soon as possible.
         Requires: Refining, Explosives
         Leads to: Flight, Automobile
         Makes available: Cruisers
         Makes obsolete: Ironclads, Barracks
         Two very important advances depend on Combustion: Flight
      and the Automobile. While the immediate effect of being able
      to build Cruisers is useful (especially for examining
      unexplored oceans), the fact that Barracks become obsolete
      for the 2d time might cause some consternation. Not only
      must Barracks be rebuilt, but their maintenance costs
      increase as well.
         Note: New icons appear for Granaries, Marketplaces, and
      Barracks in the View City display.
         Requires: Philosophy, Industrialization
         Leads to: Labor Unions
         Makes available: United Nations
         Makes obsolete: Pyramids and Michelangelo's Chapel
         Communism should be pursued under 3 conditions 1) you
      need to improve your war effort by adding Mechanized
      Infantry to your bag of tricks, 2) you're losing a war with
      another civilization and need the United Nations to
      establish peace, 3) you don't have the Pyramids or
      Michelangelo's Chapel which become obsolete. Otherwise,
      except as a tool for starting wars, Communism is a pretty
      useless form of government 
         Requires: Mathematics, Electronics
         Leads to: Space Flight, Robotics
         Makes available: SETI program
         Computers are an important way-point to a player's entire
      space program and, ultimately, Robotics (where Artillery
      units and Manufacturing Plants are a MAJOR reward). The SETI
      Program wonder, with its +50% gross light bulb production,
      while useful, arrives at a fairly late stage in the game
      after most of the discoveries have already been made. Still,
      every wonder is worth 20 Civ Points and having the SETI
      program makes the value of the additional 5 points scored
      for each "Future Advance" far more attainable.
         Requires: The Republic, Explosives
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Riflemen Units
         Makes obsolete: Legions, Musketeers
         There is only one reason to develop Conscription -- 
      Riflemen units, the best military value in the game and a
      great boon for defense. If readying the defenses is not a
      priority, research elsewhere. Remember, though, you can
      never be too prepared for a sneak attack.
         Requires: Masonry, Currency
         Leads to: Engineering, Bridge Building
         Makes available: Fortresses, Aqueducts, Colosseums
         Construction doesn't seem to get a lot of respect until
      after "something happens". After a city is denied growth
      from 10 to 11, or when the unrest in a city becomes too
      acute to ignore any longer, only then do players seem to
      appreciate the value of Construction. A little foresight in
      the development of construction can save many headaches.
         Requires: Bronze Working
         Leads to: Trade, Construction
         Makes available: Marketplaces
         The Currency advance is where building a civilizations'
      fiscal picture really begins. With a Marketplace
      improvement, a city will generate 50% more coins. Currency
      also gets one on the roads toward trade and the precious
      Caravan units, and is a must when moving toward the more
      advanced government types.
         Requires: Philosophy, Literacy
         Leads to: Recycling
         Winston Churchill aptly described democracy as "the worst
      form of government, except for all others." It is the
      highest level that a civilization can achieve and eliminates
      all corruption. Unfortunately, city unrest must be watched
      diligently, for the state of Anarchy following overthrow of
      a democratic government is twice as long (2-8 turns), and
      the double "sad faces" created when troops leave home make
      Democracy a terrible war government. One should only rush
      the discovery of Democracy when the borders are secure, the
      prospects for world peace are promising and there are no
      large expeditions off abroad.
         Requires: Magnetism, Metallurgy
         Leads to: Electronics, Advanced Flight
         Makes obsolete: Colossus wonder
         As a civilization advance, Electricity just doesn't have
      a lot of spark. While it can quickly take a player to
      Electronics (nice for its Hoover Dam wonder) and from there
      to Computers, it is best left for the big push toward the
      end game. If you have the Colossus wonder, be sure your civ
      can take the revenue loss due to its obsolescence before
      developing this advance.
         Requires: Electricity
         Leads to: Computers, Rocketry, Nuclear Power
         Makes available: Hoover Dam, Hydro Plants
         Makes obsolete: Shakespeare's Theatre
         After the discovery of Electricity, one should quickly
      follow up the discovery of Electronics since both the Hoover
      Dam wonder and the Hydro Plant improvement are excellent
      purchases. Not only do Hydro plants and the Hoover Dam
      provide 50% more shields to an industrialized city, but they
      also reduce the industrial side of the pollution formula by
      50%. The Hoover Dam provides power to all cities on a
      continent, so one should choose the sight for this wonder
      with care.
         Requires: The Wheel, Construction
         Leads to: Electronics, Invention
         While Engineering should be selected in the early portion
      of the game and has to be acquired before Industrialization,
      it should not be among the 1st handful of advances made,
      since it offers no immediate advantages.
         Requires: Gunpowder, Chemistry
         Leads to: Combustion, Conscription
         Though it sounds powerful, Explosives is another of the
      many intermediate discoveries which reap the player no
      immediate benefit. While Combustion is usually a ways off
      due to the need for Refining, Conscription is often right at
      hand. If you are under attack (or you are busy preparing to
      be attacked like a good paranoid!), the defensive advantage
      of Conscription's inexpensive riflemen might be worth a
      quick dash through Explosives. Otherwise, players should
      pursue other advances with more immediate rewards.
         Requires: Masonry, Monarchy
         Leads to: Chivalry
         There's only one reason to pursue Feudalism -- to pursue
      Chivalry and make Knights available. Knights will dominate
      the battlefield for a long time. If caught up in the
      ancient-to-medieval arms race, one might be pressed into
      pursuing Feudalism. Otherwise, it can easily wait.
         Requires: Combustion, Physics
         Leads to: Advanced Flight
         Makes available: Fighter Units
         The first step down the road to colonizing Alpha Centauri
      is Flight (which proceeds through Advanced Flight, Rocketry,
      and Space Flight). The immediate benefit of Flight is the
      Fighter Unit. Note that fighters were 'upgunned' during the
      final playtesting stage of the game, and now posses a 4
      attack and a 2 defense, and not the 3 - 3 values indicated
      in the rule book. While Fighters might take a while to get
      to the front, they are quite handy once they get there.
      Fusion Power
         Requires: Nuclear Power, Superconductor
         Leads to: Futuristic Advances
         Makes obsolete: Hydro Plants
         Fusion Power is usually the last advance one achieves
      before researching Futuristic Advances. Aside from something
      to do with scientific research production, Fusion Power
      actually does contribute one thing. With Fusion Power, the
      risk of nuclear melt-down is completely eliminated, making
      Nuclear Plants the energy source of choice for their lower
      building and maintenance costs and, now, absolute safety.
      After discovering Fusion Power, one must decide whether to
      keep the light bulbs burning to achieve Futuristic Advances,
      or to go completely hedonistic with ones luxury rate.
      Futuristic Advance
         Requires: Fusion Power
         Leads to: More Futuristic Advances
         During playtesting, this advance was known as "The
      Meaning of Life" and, as the rules state, was worth 10
      Civilization Points each. In the final code, they became a
      generic Futuristic Advance and are worth only 5 Civilization
      Points. The question the player must ask is whether they are
      a good value at only 5 points each, whereas the resources
      used to produce them might yield more in the final outcome.
      Genetic Engineering
         Requires: Medicine, The Corporation
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Cure for Cancer
         The single reason to pursue Genetic Engineering is the
      Cure For Cancer wonder. While the 20 Civilization Points for
      the wonder and the extra happy face amongst each city's
      populous are nothing to sneeze at, Genetic Engineering can
      wait for more pressing discoveries to be made. This Advance
      is usually only to be pursued by "idle minds", as it were.
         Requires: Invention, Iron Working
         Leads to: Metallurgy, Explosives
         Makes available: Musketeers
         Makes obsolete: Barracks, Militia, Phalanx, The Great
         Gunpowder is one of the 3 big Advances that really
      changes the complexity of the game. Gunpowder makes all
      Barracks obsolete and, when rebuilt, have a higher
      maintenance cost. While Gunpowder makes the Great Wall,
      Militia, and Phalanx units obsolete, it does allow
      Musketeers to be built (with their excellent defense
      strengths). Gunpowder is usually a priority Advance, just
      don't forget to sell off all your old Barracks immediately
      prior to its discovery.
      Horseback Riding
         Requires: Nothing.
         Leads to: Chivalry
         Makes available: Cavalry Units
         Horseback Riding offers very little. While it is required
      to obtain Chivalry and the Knight unit, it is ultimately a
      dead end path. This Advance can be stabled for a while
      unless there are long term prospects for war ahead. If it's
      looking hostile out there, one had better saddle up and move
      'em out.
         Requires: Railroad, Banking
         Leads to: Steel, The Corporation, Communism
         Makes available: Women's Suffrage, Transports, Factories
         Makes obsolete: Frigates
         Industrialization kicks off the modern era, and one is
      advised to acquire it with all haste. Nearly every thing
      about it is positive. Factories will increase production in
      cities by 50%; Transports greatly enhance sealift capacity;
      and Women's Suffrage is, arguably, the single most important
      wonder in the game. The downside is that population
      pollution begins to be factored into the pollution equation
      (see the Pollution Formula in the other Civilization hint
         Requires: Engineering, Literacy
         Leads to: Steam Engine, Gunpowder
         Makes obsolete: Hanging Gardens
         With necessity as its mother, Invention is a linchpin
      Advance on the road to both the Steam Engine (which leads to
      the critical Railroad advance) and Gunpowder (which takes
      one into a grand new epoch of warfare). Of course, if you
      don't have the Hanging Gardens wonder, there's the extra
      satisfaction of negating that wonder's benefits for an
      opponent. The discovery of Invention can wait for
      emergencies, but should remain a fairly high priority.
      Note: Advisors take on their modern look once a civilization
      achieves Invention.
      Iron Working
         Requires: Bronze Working
         Leads to: Bridge Building, Gunpowder
         Makes available: Legions
         Beside providing the short term advantage of cheap
      offensive units, Iron Working is one of the key basic
      building blocks of any budding Civilization.
      Labor Union
         Requires: Mass Production, Communism
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Mech Infantry
         One can count on one finger the reasons to discover Labor
      Unions -- Mechanized Infantry. The best defense in the game,
      combined with enough speed to keep up with Armor and
      Artillery Units, makes Mech Infantry a critical piece on the
      battlefield. These units are not absolutely necessary,
      however, as the cheaper Riflemen units can do the job of
      city defense while other, more pressing, advances are
         Requires: Writing, Code of Laws
         Leads to: Democracy, Invention, Philosophy, & The
         Makes available: The Great Library
         Where would civilization be without Literacy? (Not
      reading this file, certainly.) Like Philosophy, it is a tree
      with many branches, opening up many important Advances to
      discovery. Paramount among them is the Republic. If times
      are peaceful, upgrading to this form of government will
      increase trade dramatically. The Great Library, too, can be
      a great help, especially when one starts the game in an
      isolated position.
         Requires: Navigation, Physics
         Leads to: Electricity
         Makes available: Frigates
         Makes obsolete: Sail units and the Lighthouse wonder.
         While the Frigate unit is nice (having the same cost as
      the Sail unit, doubling its combat strength and adding an
      extra unit of carrying capacity), the real point of
      discovering Magnetism is to get to Electricity. However,
      while Electricity is the path to high-tech advances, it will
      take time to make that path bear fruit. Consequently,
      Magnetism can wait for more pressing Advances which offer
      more immediate returns.
      Map Making
         Requires: Alphabet
         Leads to: Navigation
         Makes available: Triremes, Lighthouse
         The need for Map Making is usually directly proportional
      to the isolation of one's starting position. If one starts
      on a small island, it is absolutely vital that one gets
      Triremes poking around in the inky black in search of new
      lands to settle.
         Requires: Nothing
         Leads to: Mathematics, Feudalism, Construction
         Makes available: The Great Wall, Pyramids, Palace, City
         Unless one is in a hurry to get Triremes or Monarchy,
      Masonry is the perfect 2nd or 3rd research choice (after
      Pottery and, perhaps, the Alphabet). City Walls are mini-
      wonders of their own (protecting against floods and greatly
      improving city defense), and the Pyramids and the Great Wall
      are both highly useful.
      Mass Production
         Requires: Automobile, The Corporation
         Leads to: Nuclear Fission, Superconductor, Recycling,
      Labor Union
         Makes available: Submarines, Mass Transit
         Mass Production is both a kiss and a curse. The curse is
      that the pollution formula takes a jump and now includes 75%
      of a city's population (up from 50% with the Automobile).
      The kiss, however, is that the Mass Transit improvement will
      completely eliminate a city's population pollution factor. 
         Requires: Alphabet, Masonry
         Leads to: Astronomy, Physics, University, Computers
         Makes available: Catapults
         Mathematics is a key building block for many essential
      advances and makes the ancient offensive juggernauts, the
      Catapults, available (helpful in both attacking and
      defending young cities). 
         Requires: Philosophy, Trade
         Leads to: Chemistry, Genetic Engineering
         Makes available: Shakespeare's Theatre
         Medicine begets Chemistry. Chemistry begets the modern
      era. Medicine also inoculates one's civ against plague. The
      Shakespeare's Theatre wonder is made available by this
      advance, though the wonder actually does very little for a
      very limited time. (See the Wonders section).
         Requires: Gunpowder, University
         Leads to: Steel, Electricity
         Makes available: Cannons
         As if being able to replace Catapults with Cannons isn't
      enough, Metallurgy is also required for discovering both
      Steel and Electricity. The urgency with which one pursues
      Metallurgy usually depends on one's pressing need for
      Cannons, as a rule. When in doubt what to research next,
      Metallurgy is a safe bet.
         Requires: Ceremonial Burial, Code of Laws
         Leads to: Feudalism
         Not only is Monarchy necessary on the road to Chivalry,
      it is also the government of progress during the early
      stages of the game. With Monarchy, both irrigation and
      mining become useful for city growth, and corruption is
      reduced a bit. No less important is the fact that Monarchies
      can declare war on other players at will, ignore their peace
      overtures and never have to cope with a meddlesome Senate
      overruling their "divinely inspired" will. Monarchy always
      makes for a good "war government".
         Requires: Ceremonial Burial
         Leads to: Astronomy, Philosophy
         Makes available: Oracle of Delphi
         Part religion, part science, it's a wonder that Mysticism
      helps along both developmental paths. For religion, it
      doubles the effect of Temples which will then make 2 unhappy
      people mollified. Additionally, with the Oracle wonder,
      Temples double their effect again making 4 unhappy citizens
      content. As for science, Mysticism leads to Astronomy and
      then to Navigation. Likewise, the Philosophy advance
      requires this mystical world view.
         Requires: Map Making, Astronomy
         Leads to: Physics, Magnetism
         Makes available: Magellan's Expedition, Sail Units
         Navigation, like Gunpowder and Industrialization, changes
      the nature of the game. With Navigation, one can build Sail
      units and explore the world. In so doing, one can establish
      far-flung embassies, trade routes and empires. Navigation
      also leads to the important advance of Physics and the
      Magellan's Expedition wonder is one of the best since it
      gives every ship an extra movement point and never expires.
      Nuclear Fission
         Requires: Mass Production, Atomic Theory
         Leads to: Nuclear Power
         Makes available: Manhattan Project
         Makes obsolete: Isaac Newton's College
         When heading down the backstretch of technology, there
      appears Nuclear Fission. While this Advance turns the lights
      out at Isaac Newton's College, it also affords one the
      opportunity to pursue the Manhattan Project. Global
      thermonuclear warfare aside, the peaceful uses for Nuclear
      Power will become available with that advance (as will a
      reduction by 50% of industrial pollution where a Nuclear
      Plant exists). Ultimately, this will lead to Fusion Power,
      at which point nuclear power is rendered completely
      Nuclear Power
         Requires: Nuclear Fission, Electronics
         Leads to: Fusion Power
         Makes available: Nuclear Plants
         Nuclear Power in Civilization is clean and cheap. Like
      Hydro Plants, Nuclear Plants cut industrial pollution by 50%
      and costs half as much to maintain. There is the small
      threat of nuclear melt-down if a city housing a plant goes
      into civil disorder, but this threat is removed once one
      moves on to Fusion Power.
         Requires: Mysticism, Literacy
         Leads to: Medicine, Democracy, University, Religion,
         Philosophy is THE portal to the world of ideas. While not
      every one of its branches is a prize, certainly Democracy
      (the highest form of government in the game) and Religion
      with its cheep, mass mollifying Cathedrals, are winners.
      Players are certainly urged to pursue Philosophy with all
      possible speed. Philosophy -- one Kant win without it.
         Requires: Mathematics, Navigation
         Leads to: Atomic Theory, Magnetism, Steam Engine, Flight
         Physics is THE advance of the modern age. Atomic theory,
      Magnetism, Electricity, Steam Engines, Railroads, and Flight
      are its progeny. It gives one a lot of flexibility -- so get
      'physic'al as soon as possible.
         Requires: Refining, Space Flight
         Leads to: Superconductor, Robotics
         Makes available: Space ark Components (with Apollo
         If one is able to develop Plastics, one is on the home
      stretch of Civilization. It is key to two important
      advances, the Superconductor and its fruit -- SDI defense,
      and, Robotics with its -- Manufacturing Plants and Artillery
      Units. Plastics does have a negative side; it raises the
      population pollution factor in the pollution equation to
      100%. (See the Formula in the other Civ hinte file).
         Requires: Nothing
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Granaries, Hanging Gardens
         With the possible exception of the Alphabet, Pottery
      should be one of the 1st advances a budding civilization
      pursues. While it leads nowhere, Granaries are vital to city
      growth and prosperity, and protect against famine.
         The Hanging Gardens wonder is marginally useful on the
      lower levels, becoming increasingly helpful at higher
      difficulty levels where unrest hits every city with its 3rd
      or 4th civie.
         Requires: Steam Engine, Bridge Building
         Leads to: Industrialization
         Makes available: Darwin's Voyage, Railroads (duh)
         The bullet train to the big time beings with the
      Railroad. With an extensive rail network throughout a
      civilization, one can get their troops anywhere in their
      empire in one move (avoid moving through cities!). One
      shouldn't limit their rails to a single transportation
      network line. Rails increase the productivity of any square
      (even ocean squares!!) by 50%, spurring a huge leap in
      income and productivity levels. All aboard!
         Requires: Mass Production, Democracy
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Recycling Centers
         This is a dead end Advance with but a single purpose;
      Recycling Centers. While a Hydro or Nuclear Power Plant will
      reduce industrial pollution by 50%, a Recycling Center will
      knock it down by 67%. For large industrial centers with
      large pollution problems, Recycling is the answer. But if
      pollution is no a major problem, one is best advised to put
      their shield resources somewhere else.
         Requires: Chemistry, The Corporation
         Leads to: Combustion, Plastics
         Makes available: Power Plant
         Refining bridges the gap between 19th and 20th century
      technology, leading to the all important Combustion Advance.
      It also provides the game's 1st power source, the Power
      Plant. The Power Plant description in the documentation (pg.
      80) is erroneous. It states that Plants "increase...
      pollution significantly", when in fact Power Plants have no
      direct impact on the Pollution formula except to increase
      productivity by 50% (as do all energy sources).
         Requires: Philosophy, Writing
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Cathedrals, J.S. Bach's Cathedral,
                          Michelangelo's Cathedral
         Makes obsolete: Oracle wonder
         Though a dead-end technology, Religion is absolutely key
      to building large cities. The Cathedral improvements it
      makes available are an improvement on Colosseums, making 4
      people content as opposed to 3, and costing 3 coins to
      maintain a turn as opposed to 4. It also opens up the way
      for J.S. Bach's Cathedral, one of the most useful and long
      lived wonders in the game.
         Requires: Plastics, Computers
         Leads to: Nothing
         Makes available: Artillery, Manufacturing Plants,
                          Space ark Modules
         Makes obsolete: Cannons
         Robotics is a boon to nearly every aspect of the game. In
      war matters, it provides the most potent offensive weapon in
      the game. Economically, it makes available the Manufacturing
      Plants which nearly doubles a city's productivity. It also
      allows one to create the Civilization score enhancing
      population modules for the Space ark.
         Requires: Advanced Flight, Electronics
         Leads to: Space Flight
         Makes available: Nuclear Unit (with Manhattan Project)
         The last milestone before Space Flight, Rocketry also
      unleashes the devastating Nuclear units. Players are wise to
      continue to aggressively pursue their space program after
      the discovery of Rocketry, since the only thing that can
      prevent nuclear devastation is the SDI improvement, which
      lay down that road. Nuke other players conservatively. Every
      polluted square one can see is another negative 10 civ
      points and other fine mess to clean up before global warming
      sets in.
      Space Flight
         Requires: Computers, Rocketry
         Leads to: Plastics
         Makes available: Apollo Program, Space Ark Structure
         Space Flight officially opens up the space age. Once the
      Apollo program is developed by any player, any other player
      may begin their Space Ark. Once one has developed Space
      Flight, he should race toward Plastics and the wonders
      Steam Engine
         Requires: Physics, Invention
         Leads to: Railroad
         Makes available: Ironclads
         Usually lost in the shuffle of other Advances, a good
      case can be made for developing the Steam Engine
      expeditiously. Like Britannia, the Ironclad will rule the
      waves for many years -- essential for island kingdoms.
      Moreover, the Steam Engine is required for the Railroad
      advance, one of the most important in the game.
         Requires: Metallurgy, Industrialization
         Leads to: Automobile
         Makes available: Battleships
         Battleships, Battleships, Battleships. Need more be said?
      These units hit hard and take a beating, can shore bombard
      enemy units and cities, and are essential to 'sea'-
      periority. Battleships, live them, learn them, love them.
         Requires: Plastics, Mass Production
         Leads to: Fusion Power
         Makes available: SDI Defense
         Superconductors are only necessary when the threat of
      nuclear annihilation is loose throughout the world. If
      there's no threat, put your shields to better use.
      The Corporation
         Requires: Banking, Industrialization
         Leads to: Mass Production, Genetic Engineering, Refining
         The Corporation is a modern conduit to many other
      advances. It is the business equivalent of the Philosophy
      advance which will thrust one toward the highly desired Mass
      Production and Refining technologies.
      Theory of Gravity
         Requires: Astronomy, University
         Leads to: Atomic Theory
         Makes available: Isaac Newton's College
         The Theory of Gravity just isn't big news. While Isaac
      Newton's College wonder is a great light bulb generator for
      a long time (until Nuclear Fission), the Theory of Gravity
      doesn't do much else. Until one is ready to start splitting
      atoms, one can let this advance float.
      The Republic
         Requires: Code of Laws, Literacy
         Leads to: Banking, Conscription
         This is the 1st of the 2 representative governments that
      become available in Civilization. One can switch to this
      form of government in order to promote economic growth while
      still maintaining some ability to wage an offensive was. One
      can actually play an entire game without leaving The
      Republic. If one is looking to upgrade the empire, one need
      only vote for The Republic (and move faster than the
      The Wheel
         Requires: Nothing
         Leads to: Engineering
         Makes available: Chariots
         This is another of the early advances which can either be
      essential or useless depending on the world situation. If
      one is isolated from others from the go, the Wheel can wait.
      If war is in the air, one need put these wheels to the road
      and bring the war home to the enemy.
         Requires: Currency, Code of Laws
         Leads to: Medicine, Banking
         Makes available: Caravan
         It seems Caravan units are often overlooked by many
      Civilization players. They are invaluable for their
      abilities to increase trade in one's empire and expedite the
      development of wonders. Note that the documentation is
      misleading regarding trade in that it suggests that the
      distance between 2 trading cities affects the volume of
      trade. Distance only comes into play when computing the
      initial trade route bonus but not in the overall volume of
      trade generated each turn.
         Requires: Mathematics, Philosophy
         Leads to: Chemistry, Metallurgy, Theory of Gravity
         Makes available: Universities
         Makes obsolete: The Great Library
         If one has fallen behind in the tech race and has built
      the Great Library to remedy that, then one might hesitate
      before developing the University. However, if in the lead,
      one had just as well develop the University and maintain
      that position. 
         Requires: Alphabet
         Leads to: Religion, Literacy
         Makes available: Libraries, Diplomats
         One might think of Writing as the narrow end of the
      scholarly telescope. While peering through it, one will pass
      through the ever wider channels of Literacy and Philosophy.
      This fact, combined with the usefulness of Diplomats, make
      Writing an advance to put at the top of your list.
            - Elliott
     ...!{ philabs | yale | oliveb | decvax | iscuva}!oliafd!elliott
    Index, Civilopedia, Citiy Names, Wonders, Advance Table, Advances Cross Refference
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