Of course, having a static cost for technology can be boring too. Instead, the figures could be used to calculate a percentage probability per RP (meaning research point, whatever a research point is deemed to be).

For instance, if the cost using one of the formulas above had been 4, then divide it into the RP to get the percentage proabaility of discovery each turn. So in this case 1/4=25% probability per turn if only 1 RP., 50% is 2, etc. Can never be more than 100% (obviously). May even want to create an upper limit of (say) 90% so that there is always an element of uncertainty.

However, it may be an idea to create a formula of diminishing returns for increased RPs. The more you sink in, the less increase in probability. In the above example, upping it from 1 to 2RPs may only take the probability from 25% up to 40% for instance.

You may also want to increase the probability slighty for each turn that the tech is not discovered, otherwise it may go on ad infinitum, not discovering anything if the percentage is very low.

For instance, if the cost using one of the formulas above had been 4, then divide it into the RP to get the percentage proabaility of discovery each turn. So in this case 1/4=25% probability per turn if only 1 RP., 50% is 2, etc. Can never be more than 100% (obviously). May even want to create an upper limit of (say) 90% so that there is always an element of uncertainty.

However, it may be an idea to create a formula of diminishing returns for increased RPs. The more you sink in, the less increase in probability. In the above example, upping it from 1 to 2RPs may only take the probability from 25% up to 40% for instance.

You may also want to increase the probability slighty for each turn that the tech is not discovered, otherwise it may go on ad infinitum, not discovering anything if the percentage is very low.

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