What's anachronistic when those lived and worked in a key period of the Enlightenment?
While researching things to disprove Heraclitus I was reminded of some interesting historical characters who had the distinction of being successful African individuals in 17th, 18th, and 19th century Europe, in an era better known for African enslavement. We all know about Alexander Dumas but here's some more interesting historical persons that seem very anachronistic (as does the open-ness of Europeans at the time):
The saga of Anthony William Amo should have been familiar to Kant because Amo gained fame in Germany for his philosophical studies. Born on the Gold Coast around 1700, he was taken to Amsterdam by the West India Company when he was about 10 years old and was presented to the Duke of Wolfenbüttel. He was baptized in Wolfenbüttel in 1707 and given the names Anton and Wilhelm in honor of the reigning duke and his son. A grant from the duke allowed Amo to be educated to a point where he was able to enter the universities at Halle, in 1727, and Wittenberg, in 1730, where he became skilled in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, German, and Dutch and concentrated on philosophy. In 1734 he was awarded the doctorate degree from the University of Wittenberg with a dissertation on "De humanae mentis apatheia" ("On Apathy in the Human Mind"). In his philosophical work he was a rationalist, devoting special attention to mathematical and medical knowledge in the context of Enlightenment thought. He became a lecturer at the University of Halle and later at the University of Jena until the 1750s.
Among the few fairly prominent black figures in Dutch history who at least briefly caught the public eye, the earliest was the former slave Jacobus Capitein, so named because a Dutch captain brought him to Leiden, where he was put into school, mastered several European languages, and eventually became a predicant after completing theological training at the University of Leiden in 1742. He became famous as author of a treatise that defended slavery as an avenue to redemption for Africans. His portrait, usually accompanied by didactic poetry, circulated widely, advertising that blacks could be transformed by Christianity and Western civilization. Prior to going off to what was to prove a disastrous mission in his homeland on the Gold Coast, he preached a number of times in Holland to audiences who flocked to see this novelty.
As for Abram Hannibal's son:The first black to attain high recognition in Russia was Abram Hannibal, the African slave who became a favorite of Tsar Peter the Great and was the maternal great-grandfather of Pushkin, the single most revered figure in all of Russian culture. Brought to Russia at the beginning of the 18th century as part of a group of young black prospective servants, Hannibal, under the tsar's sponsorship, went on to attain a high level of education in France and, after returning to Russia, eventually advanced to the rank of major general in the army engineers. He brought back to Russia a personal library of 400 books, one of the largest and most up-to-date in the empire, and himself published a two-volume compilation on geometry and construction techniques. The owner of several estates, complete with serf labor, he served from 1743 to 1751 as Commandant of the city of Reval on the Baltic, not far from Kant's Königsberg. He later directed major canal and other construction projects.
Abram Hannibal is most famous though for being the great-grandfather of famous author and poet Alexander Pushkin.Gannibal's oldest son, Ivan, became an accomplished naval officer who helped found the city of Kherson in 1779 and attained the rank of General-in-Chief, the second highest military rank in imperial Russia.
What's anachronistic when those lived and worked in a key period of the Enlightenment?
I don't quite get what exactly Albert is trying to disprove. I'm well aware that Africans where present in Europe before the modern age.
Modern man calls walking more quickly in the same direction down the same road “change.”
The world, in the last three hundred years, has not changed except in that sense.
The simple suggestion of a true change scandalizes and terrifies modern man. -Nicolás Gómez Dávila
Heraclitus no doubt has lots of African ancestors and that's why he's so obsessed with Africans.
"Our scientific power has out run out spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men." - Martin Luther King Jr.
"A cynical, mercenary, demagogic press will produce in time a people as base as itself." - Joseph Pulitzer
The ethnic origin of the Afro-Abkhazians — and how these Black African people arrived in Abkhazia — is still a matter of dispute among experts. Historians agree that the settlement of Blacks in a number of villages in the village of Adzyubzhi in Abkhazia (then part of the Ottoman Empire) is likely to have happened in the 17th century. According to one version, a few hundred Black slaves were bought and brought by Shervashidze princes (Chachba) to work on the citrus plantations. This case was a unique, and apparently not entirely successful, case of mass import of Africans to the Black Sea coast.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afro_AbkhazianIt is known that already in the 19th century, Afro-Abkhazians spoke only in Abkhazian and considered themselves Abkhaz people. Their total number is estimated by different observers in the range of "several families" to "several villages". They are not religiously homogeneous, either. Apparently in Abkhazia there are or have been in the recent past black Christians, black Muslims, and black Jews.
Afro-Abkhazians engaged in growing citrus, grapes, and corn, working in the coal mines of Tkvarchreli and enterprises of Sukhumi, working in knitting factories, etc. Like many Abkhazian people, Afro-Abkhazians today speak in Russian. Most today are of mixed race, as the Afro-Abkhazians have intermarried with other local ethnic groups. Many left Kodor settled in other parts of Abkhazia and in neighboring Georgia and Russia, as well as other nearby countries.
The queen decided to make him an experiment in upbringing; she was interested in science and had founded a science academy, where, among other topics, the origin of man and civilisation was discussed, such as the nature of "savages", the noble savage and the natural human, and in Badin, she saw an opportunity to test the theories of Rousseau and Linné. She instructed him in Christianity and taught him to read and write, but after this, he was allowed to live entirely according to his own will and judgement. He grew up as a playmate of the children in the royal family, who were brought up in a much more restricted way than he was, and was allowed to speak to them in a natural way and even fight and tease them, which was considered scandalous. He knew all the secret passages within the royal castles and, as it was said, all the secrets within its walls. Contemporary diaries describe how he climbed on the chairs of the king and queen, called everyone "you" instead of using their titles, talked rudely to the nobility and ridiculed religion when interrogated about the bible by Countess Brahe, which made everyone laugh; he was very witty and verbal.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_BadinBadin was married twice but died childless; the rumors that he was the father of the alleged secret daughter of Sophia Albertina have never been confirmed. He sometimes helped the court poet Bellman to compose verses for special occasions, and some of them were published in his name. Badin participated in plays at the French Theatre in Bollhuset; he is listed as a dancer in a ballet in the 1769-70 season and played the main part in Arlequin Sauvage in the 1770-71 season, a play in which a "savage" meets civilasation, and an erotic play by Marivaux.
The social position of Badin was not quite clear; he was given several titles, such as chamberlain, court secretary, ballet master and official; he never used the title "official", which King Gustav gave him, and told him; "Have you ever seen a black official?", but preferred to call himself farmer, as he owned two farms. He was also elected to the orders of Par Bricole, Svea Orden, Timmermansorden and the Freemasons He was described as an intelligent and reliable person with self-confidence, and though he was informed about many of the secrets of the royal family and the court, he never revealed anything, and was very loyal to the royal house throughout his entire life. His diaries, written in French, are preserved in the libray of the Uppsala University.
I couldn't remember his name at first.
There's nothing here to prove or disprove. It's just interesting historical footnotes that most people aren't aware of. Usually the only pre-emancipation 'Blacks' that you hear about are Alexander Dumas, Frederick Douglass, and Benjamin Banneker. It's interesting to find out ones that were around long before that.
And it's kind of anachronistic because you're talking about an era when millions were being shipped from West Africa to work as slaves on sugar and cotton plantations and racism was beginning to be scientifically justified with claims of African inferiority. To have a guy like Abram Hannibal building fortifications in Peter the Great's Russia and being governor of the city of Reval in that time... that's pretty amazing. It says a lot about Abram Hannibal and about the openness and tolerance of some Europeans in an otherwise racist era.
Kitschum gets it. It's just some interesting history that most people don't know for Apolyton's consumption. Not everything has to be a heated debate... maybe people can just come away from a thread having learned something.
Wouldn't Pushkin have been considered more of an Octaroon?
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